What is blockchain?

Learn about the fundamentals of blockchain technology and how it can improve the trustworthiness of records and financial transactions.
Blockchain is a method of storing data in such a way that it is difficult or impossible to alter, hack, or cheat it.
A blockchain is a digital log of transactions that is duplicated and distributed across the blockchain’s complete network of computer systems. A number of transactions are contained in each block of the chain.

Every time a new transaction takes place on the blockchain, a record of it is recorded to each participant’s ledger. Distributed Ledger Technology is a decentralized database that is administered by various people (DLT).
Blockchain is a sort of distributed ledger technology in which transactions are recorded using a hash, which is an immutable cryptographic signature.

This means that if a single block in a chain is modified, it will be immediately clear that the chain has been tampered with. Hackers would have to change every block in the chain, across all distributed versions of the chain, if they intended to destroy a blockchain system.
Many attempts to generate digital money have been made in the past, but they have all failed.
The most pressing issue is one of trust. How can we believe that if someone invents a new money called the X dollar, they won’t give themselves a million dollars or steal your X dollars?

Bitcoin was created to address this issue by utilizing a blockchain, which is a type of database. A person in control of most regular databases, such as a SQL database, can make changes to the entries (e.g. giving themselves a million X dollars). Blockchain is unique in that no one is in charge; instead, the individuals who utilize it run it. Bitcoins can’t be faked, hacked, or double-spent, so those who own them can be confident that they’re worth something.
Blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum are constantly growing as new blocks are added to the chain, increasing the security of the ledger dramatically.

1. How does Blockchain work?

Transactions and blocks are the two types of records that make up a blockchain system. Transactions are essentially the actions taken over a given time period, which are grouped into a block.
The fact that each block carries the cryptographic hash of the previous one, forming a chain, makes blockchain even more unique. A cryptographic hash takes the information from the preceding block and compresses it into a compact string. Because these sequences are impossible to predict, any tampering with the chain will be noticed quickly.

This solution eliminates the need for serial numbers because the hash allows them to be uniquely identifiable while also ensuring their integrity. Each block verifies the authenticity of the one before it, all the way down to the ‘genesis block’ at the start of the chain.
However, block linking isn’t the only thing that maintains the chain safe. It’s also decentralized; each computer running the software has a copy of the blockchain, which is updated with new blocks on a regular basis. There is no centralized server that stores transactions, and because each new block must match the chain’s requirements, no earlier transactions may be overwritten.

To specify what constitutes a legitimate entry, further transaction requirements might be introduced. A legitimate transaction in Bitcoin, for example, must be digitally signed, spend one or more unspent outputs from prior transactions, and the amount of transaction outputs cannot be greater than the sum of input.

2. Blockchain technology – opportunities and advantages

Our smart devices can communicate with one other more effectively and quickly thanks to the blockchain.
The problem of manipulation is solved by blockchain. It raises everyone’s level of accountability to the maximum level possible.
Online reputation and identification will be decentralized. The data that belongs to us will be ours.
Cryptocurrencies provide people the power to control the value of own currency, rather than governments.
People in the informal economy have a lot of potential to benefit from the blockchain’s no-middleman asset exchange.

In ways that nation-state models and international diplomacy efforts on human rights cannot, blockchain technology can more equitably address challenges relating to freedom, jurisdiction, censorship, and regulation.
The use of blockchain-based solutions eliminates the need for intermediaries in asset record keeping and transfer.
When compared to a variety of existing systems, the absence of intermediaries and settlement on distributed ledgers allows for substantially faster transaction times.

Data entered on the blockchain is unchangeable, preventing fraud by tampering with transactions and data history. Transactions on the blockchain leave a clear trail that can be traced all the way back to the beginning, allowing any transaction to be readily investigated and audited.

3. Types of Blockchain 

One major feature of public blockchains is that anyone can join the network and conduct transactions anonymously. As a result, all members of a public blockchain will be able to see the data.
Members of a public blockchain network are defined by their use of the’miners’ method. Members known as miners are those who are constantly validating data blocks on public networks. They are always contending for the right to validate data blocks.
Because bitcoin transactions are direct between individuals and do not require the involvement of a financial entity, public networks are employed. However, because the transactions are anonymous, they are vulnerable to illegal behavior.

Blockchain miners are rewarded in bitcoin or another appropriate cryptocurrency after validating transactions.
A private blockchain, on the other hand, necessitates the identification of its participants. They require credentials in order to validate data blocks and complete transactions. A private blockchain might impose restrictions on data. However, this will only happen to specific people, and it may occasionally grant access to other members. Private blockchains have been shown to be better suitable for a single company.

4. Can Blockchains Be Hacked?

Because each member has a copy of all transactions, Blockchains have shown to be extremely difficult to attack, although they are not totally secure.
Hackers need access to several members to produce bogus transactions and have them accepted, which is why it is so tough to hack.
Protocols are one item that is considered a defect. Hackers may be able to exploit a flaw in the way protocols work to ‘hack’ the system, but it is extremely difficult.

5. How are blockchain transactions validated?

The issue of guaranteeing that the same cryptocurrency coin isn’t spent twice when processing transactions on blockchain is also a concern. This is when transaction validation enters the picture.
Proof-of-work (PoW) and proof-of-stake (PoS) are the two main methods for validating transactions on the blockchain (PoS).
Bitcoin is based on the Proof-of-Work (PoW) algorithm. In PoW, cryptocurrency miners (a fancy term for people with extremely powerful computers) compete against one another to solve complicated mathematical equations that are the result of the encryption that protects transactions on a blockchain network. The first prospector

The incentive for solving these equations and validating a block of transactions is known as a “block reward.” A block reward in bitcoin is paid as a percentage of digital bitcoin.
PoS is the other primary validation method. Rather than competing for a ton of electricity to solve equations, the PoS method gives virtual coin owners the ability to authenticate transactions in a deterministic manner. To put it another way, the more coins you own of a PoS-based virtual currency, the more likely you are to be picked to validate blocks and add to the network.

While the PoW technique awards block rewards in the form of virtual currency, the PoS model compensates its stakeholders with the transaction fees paid by the users of the block that is being validated.

6. Blockchain companies

There are a slew of blockchain enterprises and startups to choose from. Block.one, ESO’s parent company, Blockchain.com, BlockStream, Coinbase, Gemini, and ConsenSys are examples of emerging blockchain enterprises. IBM, PWC, and Microsoft are among the established corporations that have entered the blockchain industry.
There are a few publicly traded corporations whose main business is blockchain and cryptocurrency.
DigitalX (ASX: DCC) is a company that advises on initial coin offerings (ICOs).
HIVE Blockchain (TSXV: HIVE) bridges the gap between blockchain and traditional asset markets.
Northern Data (FWB: NB2) teamed up with Canna to develop AI and blockchain technology.
Overstock.com (NASDAQ: OSTK) invests in blockchain startups in a variety of industries, including finance and agriculture.

RESAAS Services (TSXV: RSS) transforms the real estate sector by implementing a cloud-based, blockchain-based solution.
Digital Currency Group founded Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (OTCMKTS: GBTC) in 2013 to invest in digital currencies, especially bitcoin.
Mingxing Xu, the controlling shareholder of Okg Technology Holdings Ltd (HKG: 1499), is also the controlling shareholder of OKEx.
Huobi Technology (HKG: 1611) is a blockchain-related service provider and cryptocurrency exchange.

7. Is blockchain public or private?

The potential for a developer or corporation to personalize blockchain technology is one of its most appealing features. This means that a blockchain can be completely open to the public and open to anyone, or it can be completely private, with only a few people having access to the data or being able to send and receive payments. A public blockchain, such as Bitcoin, is open-source and open to everybody, but a private blockchain would be ideal for a corporate customer.


Governments have had to deal with the difficulty of enabling secure commerce and other interactions among strangers as civilization has grown beyond tribes and small groupings. Although the methods are now somewhat different, the purpose remains the same – a safe means of transaction.
Big data and IoT are forming a complex world. Blockchain will play a significant role in our digital financial and technical future.

The bitcoin ‘blockchain’ technology could be a part of a whole new world of technology as big as the internet itself, a wave of innovation that eliminates the middleman in much commerce and allows us to trade goods and services with people all over the world without going through corporate intermediaries.
It has the potential to completely decentralize civilization, eliminating the need for banks, governments, corporations, and politicians.